In 2002, Casalino and colleagues reported the effects of hydroxytyrosol (2-3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl ethanol, DPE), a compound present in extra virgin olive oil, and manganese (Mn2+) in cadmium-exposed rat liver. Results showed a 30.4% increase in liver glutathione levels in untreated animals 24 h after cadmium poisoning, and similar results were observed when low concentrations of Mn2+ were applied (32.9%). The liver activities of CuZn-SOD, Mn-SOD and catalase in cadmium exposed rats were not recovered by Mn2+ alone. Lipid peroxidation was maintained in animals exposed to cadmium (2.5 mg/kg, IP) and treated with DPE (9 mg/kg, IP) and Mn2+ (2 mg/kg, IP). The authors conclude that cadmium exposure stimulates endogenous defense in hepatocytes and that DPE can modulate this outcome.
HT has two different types of metabolism: primary metabolism and translational metabolism in the liver. Both are equally important, as HT has undergone different modifications in its body that are said to give it its properties. The first modification is performed in intestinal cells, which, as described above, must be absorbed through the gastrointestinal lumen. It describes all the processes. According to different studies, this process can be shortened to three forms.
Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid is produced by oxidation of alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase
Methylation by catechol-o-methyltransferase produces high vanillin alcohol
Methylation - oxidation occurs to form hypervanillic acid
In addition, a large number of HT and its metabolite conjugates with glucosidate and sulfate can be detected in plasma and urine [10b, 17]. Given the nature of HT and the metabolic pathway in which it occurs, we can predict the form of elimination.
Olivin can alleviate cognitive dysfunction induced by narcotic drugs in rats. The signaling mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of olive oil are unclear, but because phenolic compounds have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and improve endothelial and platelet function, these effects may be important in improving cognitive function. Several components of olive oil, including olivins and olivins, have been shown to affect the processing of amyloid precursor proteins and/or the aggregation of amyloid beta peptides, as well as neuroinflammation. Conceivably, this neuroprotective effect of olive oil polyphenols mainly protects nerve cells from damage or death, which contributes to reduced cognitive function.